plum curculio life cycle

No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The problem is to balance the need for laboratory adaptation against the possible need to retain genetic variability or heterozygosity, and certainly to prevent genetic deterioration of the stock. However, the egg scars will be present at harvest and will degrade the quality of the fruit. The adult plum curculio is a 3/16" dark brown beetle with a snout about 1/3 as long as its body. Myrmecochory appears to be more prevalent in Australia and South Africa than in other regions. Thus, transgenic approaches have been used to increase the virulence in NPVs, e.g., through the addition of scorpion toxin (Stewart et al., 1991; Harrison and Bonning, 2000) or insect hormones (Maeda, 1989; Chen et al., 2000). ... Life Cycle (50-55 Days) Eggs… (Approx. Delpuech et al. Seeds in which larvae had reached an advanced stage of development did not germinate. A lack of understanding of the biological and ecological constraints required for pathogen persistence and proliferation in the environment is likely to lead to a discrepancy between laboratory and field efficacy (Hu and St. Leger, 2002; Bruck, 2005, 2010). Sophisticated technical tests have also been used (Bush et al., 1976; Goodenough et al., 1978; Brown, 1984). Hoffman et al. In Wyoming, a 1990 survey (Page et al., 1990) revealed that most of the irrigated alfalfa fields in the state are infected with VW. Traps (Figure 9.2C) baited with benzaldehyde, in particular, in combination with grandisoic acid attracted significantly more adults than those baited with grandisoic acid alone or the unbaited traps (Piñero et al., 2001). In 2015 we observed a more gradual emergence of adults, with two overlapping generations (figure 3). In backyards with only a handful of infested trees, plum curculios may be shaken out of infested trees. In badly damaged fruit, one can identify large scars and bumps due to feeding. Hence, many tree species produce abundant seed only once every several years, a strategy known as masting. If existing or newly discovered entomopathogen strains or species cannot achieve desired levels of microbial control efficacy, another option is to improve selected candidates through genetic approaches. One non-molecular method entails selection for desired traits. This insect overwinters in the adult stage and begins emerging in April or May depending on the availability of suitable host plants. Test materials included a new premix insecticide (Besiege), synthetic pyrethroid (bifenthrin), synergist (PBO-8), microbial insecticide (Botanigard), and a tank mix (Botanigard + bifenthrin). All pesticides listed in this publication are contingent upon continued registration. The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America (Racette et al., 1992; Horton and Johnson, 2005); we will, however, address C. nenuphar control in this section under stone fruit. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Monitoring - The critical areas (outer rows) of an orchard should be monitored regularly for fresh feeding or egg laying punctures. Research into the behavioural manipulation of plum curculio has focused on the monitoring and control strategies using the synthetic aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (Table 9.1), and fruit volatiles. Timothy D. Schowalter, in Insect Ecology (Fourth Edition), 2016. The larval stage usually takes 2-3 weeks. (1984) described a system using genetic selection to improve the characteristics of an already existing culture of the cabbage looper. Even if a nondiapausing field biotype does not exist, it may be possible to develop a nondiapausing laboratory biotype by selection over a number of generations. In response to this problem, a trap tree technique was developed to monitor the oviposition activity of plum curculio in which one perimeter-row tree was baited with a synergistic two-component lure (grandisoic acid+benzaldehyde) (Prokopy et al., 2003, 2004). Entomologists at the University of Georgia have studied the cowpea curculio for many years, but the need for research in effective management strategies continues. Trap Tree Shenanigans. After the female has chosen a suitable host, she will build an egg chamber under the fruit skin to receive the egg. The Alabama When full-grown, the grubs work their way out of the fruit and move into the ground to pupate. Watch for spider mite outbreaks that can be induced by using synthetic pyrethroids in hot, dry weather. The intensity of seed predation depends to a large extent on seed availability. Seeds containing early instars were defecated with the larvae killed, and the seeds were able to germinate. On the other hand, Farwig et al. The larvae create holes in the fruit skin when they leave the fruit to pupate. Restricting treatments to sentinel trees can reduce insecticide treatment by more than 90% (Leskey et al., 2008). Add a synergist (at the high rate) with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to improve control.

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