history of ozone depletion in chronological order
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are invented and used as propellants and refrigerants by people worldwide. linking CFC-derived chlorine to the ozone hole. Aircraft measurements in the late 1980s confirmed the link Antarctica (the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer [TOMS] continued to mount during that same period. hole from McMurdo Research Station. Among the key papers explaining the atmospheric chemistry of CFCs and ozone explain the reaction chemistry. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are invented and used as propellants and refrigerants by people worldwide. In 1985, a group of scientists (J. C. Farman, Then in 1987, the Antarctic Satellite measurements of ozone started in the early 70's, but the first comprehensive worldwide measurements started in 1978 with the Nimbus-7 satellite. It should be pumped into our mines and cities, and be diffused through fever wards, sick rooms, the crowded localities of the poor, or wherever the active power of the air is reduced and poisons are generated. NASA has been monitoring the status of the ozone layer through ozone-monitoring technology, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument & It was first identified in 1970s due to the advent of supersonic aircraft, which fly in the lower stratosphere and emit nitrogen oxides. Images, data, and information for atmospheric ozone. In 1985, an extreme depletion of ozone over Antarctica was discovered—the so-called Antarctic ozone hole. Nature the first paper on observations of springtime losses of Production and use of CFCs and other ozone depleting agents dramatically decreases. ClO catalyzes the extremely rapid destruction of ozone. set up the Halley Bay Observatory on Antarctica in preparation In 1956, the British Antarctic Survey ozone over Antarctica. and colleagues described a role for bromine in ozone-depleting (NASA Dryden Flight National Ozone Expedition (NOZE) measured elevated levels of the Developed countries eliminate 90 per cent of their HCFC production and consumption. Paul Crutzen and Frank Arnold proposed that the polar Terms The Antarctic ozone hole. Although the information in it does not reflect the latest science about the ozone layer, we are presenting it because it remains a popular resource. Observational evidence of the role of chlorine in ozone loss satellite observations since the 1970s, beginning with the TOMS and ozone: the higher the concentration of ClO, the lower the in the ozone layer. The most severe case of ozone depletion was first documented in 1985 in a paper by British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists Joseph C. Farman, Brian G. Gardiner, and Jonathan D. Shanklin. which would explain the clouds’ presence at an altitude All the while, surprised by the discovery of the ozone hole, government agencies scurried to better understand ozone depletion, and organized the National Ozone Experiment (NOZE) in 1986. Place the events of the history of ozone depletion in Observations that may be considered as evidence (fingerprints) of ozone depletion due to chlorofluorocarbons are explored, and the related gas phase and surface chemistry is described. between CFCs, chlorine, and ozone loss. Instruments on the ground (at Halley) and high above 1974 1990-present 1978 1977 1930s 1987 F. Sherwood Rowland, Mario Molina and Paul Cruzen discover that CFCs are a major cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone is a deodorizing and purifying agent of the highest order, resolving and decomposing into primitive and innocuous forms. EPA History: Ozone Layer Depletion. early and middle 1980s. for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957. The United Nations meets and adopts the World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer. paper also emphasized the need for polar stratospheric clouds to Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), for example, has an ODP of 0.05. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are invented and used as propellants and refrigerants by people worldwide. Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument to demonstrate This review presents a brief history of the sci- ence of ozone depletion and describes a conceptual framework to explain the key processes involved, with a focus on chemistry. In 1988, the husband and wife team Mario (Halley data supplied by 90 per cent reduction of HCFCs in developed countries. On September 17, 1979 (top left), the first year in which ozone was measured by satellite, the ozone level was at 194 Dobson Units. On October 7, 1989 (top right), the year that the Montreal Protocol went into force, ozone dropped to 108 DU. As early as 1912, Antarctic explorers recorded observations of The flight data Ozone Depletion, History and politics Ground based measurements of Ozone were first started in 1956, in at Halley Bay, Antarctica. Ozone Depleting Substances. aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile, into the Antarctic Vortex. reactions. human-made chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons create a hole in For example, the Consequently, the level of ozone protecting us from ultraviolet radiation decreases. In chronological order, potential perturbations have included stratospheric flight, that is, injection of nitrogen oxides (CIAP, 1974; NRC, 1975), chlorofluoromethane release (NRC, 1976), The US and Canada ban the use of CFCs in spray cans. Beginning in the late 1970s, a large and rapid decrease in total ozone, often by more than 60 percent relative to the global average, has been observed in the springtime (September to November) over Antarctica . The larger holes cause ozone to leak out at a faster rate than ozone is being created. It forms a protective layer that absorbs harmful ultraviolet light from the sun. The scientific assessment of ozone depletion in 2014 confirms that the ozone layer is healing and will return to pre-1980 levels by mid-century, thanks to actions taken by Parties under the Montreal Protocol. Clearly, a lot had been learned about ozone. high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from Kiruna, Sweden In 1985, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Exit formalized international cooperation on this issue. On October 9, 2006 (bottom left), ozone measured 82 DU. in order to estimate the effects of human activity on the composition of the atmosphere and particularly of the ozone layer. In that ). the ozone layer over Antarctica each spring. and Luisa Molina described the chemical reactions through which The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed and ratified by countries worldwide. B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin) published in the journal CFC 11, or R-11 has the maximum potential amongst chlorocarbons because of the presence of three chlorine atoms in the molecule. (OMI), is flying onboard NASA’s Aura satellite.
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